I have not found a good reference online to help with understanding the best way to trowel concrete. I'm currently using Rapid Set concrete. Since Concrete is not my full-time job yet, I don't have the day it seems to take to figure out Portland troweling.

After about 15 minutes the rapid set lost its sheen so I Troweled it and it was very butter like. All the sheen came back. I waited 15 more minutes and did the same thing, it was still mostly butter like, but was definitely much harder. I came back 15 minutes later to trowel again and I seem to be creating dimples, and it's much more firm and unbutter-like. I'm not sure if that is where the stones are or are not.

I'm working with a small 13" x 19" by three-quarter inch slab.

Does anyone have input as to when the trowel, how long to trowel, how long to wait before troweling again, and how many times One should trowel a slab if they want it flat?

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Troweling is a technique by itself.  If you just pour concrete and zoom in it will have waves (a smaller scale like broom finished).  That's why you cant see your reflection.  So the answer is at the perfect time go over it and you cut the waves in half and it gets smoother.  If you do this right you will end up with a mirror finish.  But it do it too long you can burn the surface black.  So the only answer is perfect timing and go over the whole piece and let it rest.

Do you know when that perfect timing is?
As far as I know, I should may trowel right away to bring up the cream and push down the rocks. Is the mirror finish what is called "hard troweling"?

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